Kwayoyin hasken rana

Kwayoyin hasken rana sun kasu kashi silicon crystalline da silicon amorphous, daga cikinsu akwai ƙwayoyin silicon crystalline za a iya ƙara zuwa sel monocrystalline da ƙwayoyin polycrystalline;ingancin silicon monocrystalline ya bambanta da na silicon crystalline.

Rabewa:

Kwayoyin silicon silicon da aka saba amfani da su a cikin hasken rana ana iya raba su zuwa:

Single crystal 125*125

Single crystal 156*156

Polycrystalline 156*156

Single crystal 150*150

Single crystal 103*103

Polycrystalline 125*125

Tsarin sarrafawa:

A samar da tsarin na hasken rana Kwayoyin ne zuwa kashi silicon wafer dubawa - surface texturing da pickling - watsa junction - dephosphorization silicon gilashin - plasma etching da pickling - anti-tunani shafi - allo bugu - Rapid sintering, da dai sauransu Cikakkun bayanai ne kamar haka:

1. Silicon wafer dubawa

Silicon wafers sune masu ɗaukar sel na hasken rana, kuma ingancin wafers na siliki kai tsaye yana ƙayyadad da ingantaccen juzu'i na ƙwayoyin hasken rana.Sabili da haka, ya zama dole don bincika wafern siliki mai shigowa.Wannan tsari ne yafi amfani da online auna wasu fasaha sigogi na silicon wafers, wadannan sigogi yafi hada da wafer surface unevenness, tsiraru m rayuwa, resistivity, P / N irin da microcracks, da dai sauransu Wannan rukuni na kayan aiki ne zuwa kashi atomatik loading da saukewa. , Canja wurin wafer silicon, ɓangaren haɗin tsarin da samfuran ganowa huɗu.Daga cikin su, na'urar ganowa ta siliki ta photovoltaic tana gano rashin daidaituwa na farfajiyar wafer siliki, kuma a lokaci guda yana gano sigogin bayyanar kamar girman da diagonal na wafer silicon;ana amfani da tsarin gano micro-crack don gano ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta na ciki na wafer silicon;Bugu da kari, akwai nau'ikan ganowa guda biyu, ɗayan samfuran gwajin kan layi galibi ana amfani da su don gwada ƙarfin juriya na wafers silicon da nau'in wafer na silicon, ɗayan kuma ana amfani da shi don gano tsirarun dillalai na rayuwar siliki.Kafin gano tsirarun dillalai rayuwa da juriya, ya zama dole a gano diagonal da micro-cracks na silicon wafer, da kuma ta atomatik cire lalace silicon wafer.Silicon wafer kayan aikin dubawa na iya yin lodi ta atomatik da sauke wafers, kuma zai iya sanya samfuran da ba su cancanta ba a cikin ƙayyadadden matsayi, don haka inganta daidaiton dubawa da inganci.

2. Surface textured

Shirye-shiryen rubutun siliki na monocrystalline shine yin amfani da anisotropic etching na silicon don samar da miliyoyin tetrahedral pyramids, wato, tsarin dala, a saman kowane santimita murabba'in na silicon.Saboda ɗimbin tunani da jujjuyawar hasken abin da ya faru a saman, ɗaukar haske yana ƙaruwa, kuma an inganta ɗan gajeren kewayawar halin yanzu da ƙarfin juzu'i na baturi.Maganin anisotropic etching na silicon yawanci shine maganin alkaline mai zafi.Abubuwan da ake samu sune sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide da ethylenediamine.Yawancin silica na fata ana shirya su ta hanyar amfani da maganin diluted mai rahusa na sodium hydroxide tare da maida hankali na kusan 1%, kuma zafin etching shine 70-85 ° C.Don samun rigar rigar rigar, barasa irin su ethanol da isopropanol ya kamata kuma a ƙara su cikin maganin azaman abubuwan haɗaɗɗun abubuwa don haɓaka lalata silicon.Kafin a shirya kirfa, wafer silicon dole ne a sanya shi zuwa ga etching na farko, kuma kusan 20-25 μm an haɗa shi da maganin alkaline ko acidic etching.Bayan an cire fata, ana yin tsabtace sinadarai gabaɗaya.Kada a adana wafern siliki da aka shirya a cikin ruwa na dogon lokaci don hana kamuwa da cuta, kuma yakamata a watsa su da wuri-wuri.

3. Kullin yadawa

Kwayoyin hasken rana suna buƙatar haɗin haɗin PN mai girma don gane jujjuyawar makamashin haske zuwa makamashin lantarki, kuma tanderun watsawa kayan aiki ne na musamman don kera mahadar PN na ƙwayoyin rana.Tushen yaɗa wutar lantarki ya ƙunshi sassa huɗu ne: na sama da na ƙasa na kwale-kwalen quartz, ɗakin shaye-shaye, sashin jikin tanderun da ɓangaren ma'ajin gas.Yadawa gabaɗaya yana amfani da tushen ruwa na phosphorus oxychloride azaman tushen yadawa.Sanya wafer siliki na nau'in P a cikin kwandon ma'adini na tanderun watsa tubular, kuma amfani da nitrogen don kawo phosphorus oxychloride a cikin kwandon ma'adini a babban zafin jiki na 850-900 digiri Celsius.Phosphorus oxychloride yana amsawa tare da wafer silicon don samun phosphorus.zarra.Bayan wani ɗan lokaci, ƙwayoyin phosphorus suna shiga saman Layer na wafer siliki daga ko'ina, kuma suna shiga kuma suna watsawa a cikin wafer siliki ta hanyar gibba tsakanin ƙwayoyin silicon, suna samar da haɗin gwiwa tsakanin nau'in semiconductor na nau'in N da P. nau'in semiconductor, wato PN junction.Junction na PN da aka samar ta wannan hanyar yana da daidaituwa mai kyau, rashin daidaituwar juriyar takarda bai wuce 10% ba, kuma tsirarun mai ɗaukar hoto na iya zama sama da 10ms.Ƙirƙirar haɗin PN shine mafi mahimmanci kuma mafi mahimmancin tsari a cikin samar da ƙwayoyin rana.Domin shi ne samuwar mahadar PN, electrons da ramukan ba sa komawa wuraren da suka fito bayan sun zubo, ta yadda za a samar da wutan lantarki, sai a fitar da na’urar ta waya, watau direct current.

4. Dephosphorylation silicate gilashin

Ana amfani da wannan tsari a cikin tsarin samar da ƙwayoyin hasken rana.Ta hanyar etching sinadarai, wafer siliki yana nutsewa a cikin maganin hydrofluoric acid don samar da halayen sinadarai don samar da hadadden fili mai narkewa hexafluorosilicic acid don cire tsarin watsawa.Layer na gilashin phosphosilicate da aka kafa akan saman wafer siliki bayan haɗuwa.A yayin aiwatar da watsawa, POCL3 yana amsawa tare da O2 don samar da P2O5 wanda aka ajiye akan saman wafer silicon.P2O5 yana amsawa tare da Si don samar da SiO2 da atom na phosphorus, Ta wannan hanyar, Layer na SiO2 mai dauke da abubuwan phosphorus yana samuwa akan saman wafer silicon, wanda ake kira gilashin phosphosilicate.Kayan aiki don cire gilashin silicate na phosphorous gabaɗaya sun ƙunshi babban jiki, tanki mai tsaftacewa, tsarin servo drive, hannun injin, tsarin sarrafa lantarki da tsarin rarraba acid atomatik.Babban tushen wutar lantarki shine hydrofluoric acid, nitrogen, iska mai matsa lamba, ruwa mai tsafta, iska mai zafi da sharar ruwa.Hydrofluoric acid yana narkar da silica saboda hydrofluoric acid yana amsawa da silica don samar da iskar silicon tetrafluoride maras tabbas.Idan hydrofluoric acid ya wuce kima, silicon tetrafluoride da aka samar ta hanyar amsawa zai kara amsawa tare da acid hydrofluoric don samar da wani hadadden mai narkewa, hexafluorosilicic acid.

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5. Plasma etching

Tun lokacin aiwatar da yaduwa, ko da an karɓi watsawar baya-da-baya, babu makawa za a yaɗuwar phosphorus a duk saman da ya haɗa da gefuna na wafer silicon.Na'urorin lantarki masu ɗaukar hoto da aka tattara a gefen gaba na mahadar PN za su gudana tare da gefen gefen inda ake watsa phosphorus zuwa gefen baya na mahadar PN, yana haifar da ɗan gajeren kewayawa.Don haka, dole ne a lissafta siliki ɗin da ke kewaye da tantanin halitta don cire haɗin PN a gefen tantanin halitta.Yawancin lokaci ana yin wannan tsari ta amfani da dabarun etching plasma.Plasma etching yana cikin ƙananan matsa lamba, iyayen kwayoyin halittar gas mai amsawa CF4 suna jin daɗin ƙarfin mitar rediyo don samar da ionization da samar da plasma.Plasma ya ƙunshi cajayen lantarki da ions.A ƙarƙashin tasirin electrons, iskar gas a cikin ɗakin amsawa na iya ɗaukar makamashi kuma ya samar da adadi mai yawa na ƙungiyoyi masu aiki ban da ana canza su zuwa ions.Ƙungiyoyin masu amsawa masu aiki suna isa saman SiO2 saboda yaduwa ko ƙarƙashin aikin filin lantarki, inda suke amsawa ta hanyar sinadarai tare da saman kayan da za a yi, kuma suna samar da samfurori masu canzawa waɗanda suka rabu da saman kayan don zama. etched, kuma ana fitar da su daga cikin rami ta hanyar injin injin.

6. Rufewar tunani

The reflectivity na goge silicon surface ne 35%.Don rage girman bayyanar da haɓaka haɓakar juzu'i na tantanin halitta, ya zama dole don saka fim ɗin siliki nitride anti-reflection Layer.A cikin samar da masana'antu, ana amfani da kayan aikin PECVD akai-akai don shirya fina-finai na anti-tunani.PECVD shine haɓakar tururin sinadarai na plasma.Ka'idarsa ta fasaha ita ce yin amfani da plasma mai ƙananan zafin jiki azaman tushen makamashi, ana sanya samfurin a kan cathode na fitarwa mai haske a ƙarƙashin ƙananan matsa lamba, ana amfani da hasken haske don zafi samfurin zuwa zafin jiki da aka ƙayyade, sannan kuma adadin da ya dace. An gabatar da iskar gas mai amsawa SiH4 da NH3.Bayan jerin halayen sinadarai da halayen plasma, an kafa fim mai ƙarfi, wato, fim ɗin silicon nitride, a saman samfurin.Gabaɗaya, kaurin fim ɗin da aka ajiye ta wannan hanyar haɓakar tururin sinadarai na plasma ya kai kusan nm 70.Fina-finan wannan kauri suna da aikin gani.Yin amfani da ka'idar tsangwama na bakin ciki na fim, za'a iya rage girman haske sosai, gajeren lokaci da kuma fitarwa na baturi yana karuwa sosai, kuma ana inganta ingantaccen aiki.

7. allo bugu

Bayan tantanin hasken rana ya wuce ta hanyoyin rubutu, yadawa da PECVD, an kafa haɗin PN, wanda zai iya haifar da halin yanzu a ƙarƙashin haske.Domin fitar da halin yanzu da aka samar, ya zama dole a yi na'urori masu inganci da mara kyau a saman baturin.Akwai hanyoyi da yawa don kera na'urorin lantarki, kuma bugu na allo shine tsarin samar da na'urori na yau da kullun don kera wayoyin salula na rana.Buga allo shine buga wani ƙayyadaddun ƙirar ƙira akan ma'auni ta hanyar sakawa.Kayayyakin sun kunshi sassa uku: bugu na azurfa-aluminum a bayan baturin, bugu na aluminum a bayan baturin, da bugu na azurfa a gaban baturin.Ka'idar aikinsa ita ce: yi amfani da raga na ƙirar allo don kutsawa cikin slurry, shafa wani takamaiman matsi akan ɓangaren slurry na allo tare da scraper, kuma matsa zuwa ɗayan ƙarshen allon a lokaci guda.Ana matse tawada daga raga na sashin zane akan mashin ɗin ta squeegee yayin da yake motsawa.Saboda tasirin danko na manna, alamar tana daidaitawa a cikin wani yanki na musamman, kuma squeegee koyaushe yana cikin layin layi tare da farantin bugu na allo da substrate yayin bugawa, kuma layin lamba yana motsawa tare da motsi na squeegee don kammalawa. bugun bugun.

8. saurin zubewa

Ba za a iya amfani da wafer siliki da aka buga akan allo kai tsaye ba.Yana buƙatar a dasa shi da sauri a cikin tanderun da aka yi amfani da shi don ƙone mai ɗaure resin Organic, yana barin kusan na'urorin lantarki masu tsabta waɗanda ke manne da wafer silicon saboda aikin gilashi.Lokacin da zafin jiki na lantarki na azurfa da siliki na crystalline ya kai ga yanayin eutectic, ana haɗa ƙwayoyin siliki na siliki a cikin narkakken kayan lantarki na azurfa a cikin wani ƙayyadadden rabo, ta haka ne ke samar da lambar ohmic na manyan na'urorin lantarki na sama da na ƙasa, da kuma haɓaka buɗewar kewayawa. irin ƙarfin lantarki da cika factor na tantanin halitta.Maɓallin maɓalli shine a sanya shi yana da halayen juriya don haɓaka ingantaccen juzu'i na tantanin halitta.

An kasu kashi uku na murhun wuta: pre-sintering, sintering, da sanyaya.Manufar matakin da aka riga aka yi shi ne don bazuwa da ƙona ma'aunin polymer a cikin slurry, kuma yawan zafin jiki yana tashi a hankali a wannan mataki;a cikin mataki na ɓacin rai, nau'ikan halayen jiki da na sinadarai an kammala su a cikin jikin da aka yi amfani da su don samar da tsarin fim mai tsayayya, yana mai da shi da gaske., zafin jiki ya kai kololuwa a wannan matakin;a cikin yanayin sanyaya da sanyaya, gilashin yana sanyaya, daɗaɗɗa da ƙarfafawa, don haka tsarin fim mai tsayayya yana manne da ma'auni.

9. Kayan aiki

A cikin aikin samar da tantanin halitta, ana kuma buƙatar kayan aiki na gefe kamar samar da wutar lantarki, wutar lantarki, samar da ruwa, magudanar ruwa, HVAC, vacuum, da tururi na musamman.Kariyar wuta da kayan aikin kare muhalli ma suna da mahimmanci musamman don tabbatar da aminci da ci gaba mai dorewa.Don layin samar da tantanin rana tare da fitarwa na shekara-shekara na 50MW, yawan wutar lantarki na tsari da kayan aikin wutar lantarki kawai kusan 1800KW ne.Adadin tsarin ruwa mai tsabta yana da kusan ton 15 a cikin awa daya, kuma buƙatun ingancin ruwa sun dace da ma'aunin fasaha na EW-1 na ruwan sa na lantarki na kasar Sin GB/T11446.1-1997.Adadin tsarin sanyaya ruwa kuma shine ton 15 a cikin awa daya, girman barbashi a cikin ingancin ruwa bai kamata ya fi microns 10 ba, kuma yawan zafin jiki na ruwa ya zama 15-20 ° C.Matsakaicin ƙayyadadden ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun iska yana kusan 300M3/H.A sa'i daya kuma, ana bukatar kimanin mita 20 na tankunan ajiya na nitrogen da mita cubic 10 na tankunan ajiyar oxygen.Yin la'akari da abubuwan tsaro na iskar gas na musamman kamar silane, kuma ya zama dole a kafa ɗakin gas na musamman don tabbatar da amincin samarwa.Bugu da kari, hasumiya na konewa na silane da tashoshi na kula da najasa suma abubuwan da ake bukata don samar da tantanin halitta.


Lokacin aikawa: Mayu-30-2022